Rearing a puppy may sound like a good idea, but the hard task come at maintaining one until it becomes an adult. Just like a small kid, you need to feed it the right type of food for it to thrive. But how do you choose the best meal for a puppy?
There are several considerations you need to make when selecting the right puppy food. First, did you know that puppies consume more energy as they grow than adult dogs? Yes, they do! They also need the right balance of nutrients for the proper development of the heart and muscles as well as the strengthening of the immune system since it is more vulnerable when young.
You, therefore, should provide your puppies with food that can supply the right amount of energy required for growth as well as meet the growing demands. When you feed your puppies with the right food, they will grow at a measured pace without the risk of obesity or rapid growth spurts. To help you make a good selection, here is a list of the best puppy food that you can find in the market today.
1 Our Top Pick Best Puppy Food
- 1.1 Taste of the Wild Grain Dog Food
- 1.2 Hill’s Science Diet Dry Dog Food
- 1.3 Purina ONE SmartBlend Natural Puppy Dog Food
- 1.4 Pedigree Complete Nutrition Puppy Dry Dog Food
- 1.5 Royal Canin Size Health Nutrition Mini Puppy Dry Dog Food
- 1.6 IAMS Proactive Health Puppy Dry Food
- 1.7 Hill’s Science Diet Dry Dog Food, Puppy
- 1.8 Rachael Ray Nutrish Bright Puppy Natural Premium Dog Dry Dog Food
- 1.9 Natural Balance L.I.D. Limited Ingredient Diets Dry Puppy Food
- 1.10 Blue Buffalo Life Protection Formula Large Breed Puppy Dog Food
- 1.11 Eukanuba Puppy Dry Dog Food
- 1.12 Canidae Pure Puppy Recipe Limited Ingredient Grain-Free Premium Dry Dog Food
- 1.13 Diamond Naturals Large Breed Puppy Real Lamb Premium Dry Dog Food
- 2 Summing up
- 3 Best Selling Puppy Food On Amazon
Our Top Pick Best Puppy Food
Taste of the Wild Grain Dog Food
Taste of the Wild is a product by Diamond Pet Foods, a Missouri based pet food company that is run by the Schell and Kampeter family. Its food is low prices ad of high quality. It does not contain any grains but makes use of real meat and healthy vegetables, legumes, and fruits. The Taste of The Wild Grain High Prairie Dry Dog Food contains 32 percent proteins that are a good match for an active puppy.
The proteins include chelated mineral enrichments that make them easier to absorb and are responsible for the remarkable growth of the animal’s claws, sight, and coat. The main ingredients in the High Prairie dry dog food include Buffalo meat, lamb meat, sweet potatoes, eggs, peas, and canola oil. The buffalo and venison are rich in protein, while the sweet potato enriches the meal with plenty of gluten-free carbohydrates.
Even with a rich source of protein, the food is rich in carbs and has a lower fat content. The carbs are responsible for providing the young pets enough energy to grow while active. The carbohydrates are cheap to acquire, making the overall price of the meal to stay low.
Apart from the proteins and the carbs, the meal also has omega 3 and omega-six fatty acids that you can find from the canola oil. Canola oil is an important part that balances the diet since it is a good source of high energy.
- It does not contain any grains.
- It includes a high percentage level of proteins.
- The meal consists of a supplement of essential nutrients such as Vitamin E and Zinc that are important for the healthy growth of your puppy.
- It is the best meal to give to highly active pets.
- It does not contain any unnatural preservatives.
- The food is easy to digest.
- The meal is rich in good quality fat.
- The vegetables that make up the food are rich in fiber, preventing any constipation or diarrhea.
- Its high protein levels may lead to the damage of kidney and liver problems.
Since puppies have a huge energy requirement as they grow, you need to provide them with a meal that can meet those requirements. The Taste of the Wild Grain Dry Dog Food meets those demands effectively making it one of the best dog food for puppies in the market.
Hill’s Science Diet Dry Dog Food
Hill’s Science Diet is one of the highest-rated dog foods in the market today. The company provides food for dogs that are in different life stages or those that have different health conditions. For a puppy, it is best to use the chicken meal, barley, and brown rice recipe that is made specifically for young dogs to aid in their development.
The main ingredients that make up the recipe include pork meal, chicken meal, cracked pearled barley, whole grain corn, and whole-grain wheat. They constitute the right balance of proteins, carbohydrates, and fiber. It gets proteins from two meat sources that are verified to be suitable for puppies.
It does not use ant chicken by-products. The proteins are responsible for the development of lean muscles giving puppies an ideal body. Other ingredients make up the meal such as fish oil that is a source for omega-three fatty acid, which is responsible for the healthy development skeletal muscles for excellent mobility.
It also contains vitamin C and E that help to build up the immune system of the young dog. The recipe does not contain any artificial flavors, preservatives or color. The meal is best suited for feeding pregnant and nursing dogs. You can as well feed one-year-old dogs.
- The meal is well balanced and highly nutritious.
- You can use it to feed a sick pet.
- It can provide your pet with a considerable amount of protein for the development of lean muscles.
- It contains a range of nutrients that support the development of strong bones and teeth.
- It uses real meat instead of by-products.
- The meal is in small kibbles, making it more straightforward for the young pet to feed.
- The selection of ingredients makes the meal highly flavorful.
- It is in small sizes so that the puppies can quickly eat and digest them.
- The feed does not contain any artificial preservatives, flavors, and colors.
- It contains whole grains that can be hard to digest for dogs.
Purina ONE SmartBlend Natural Puppy Dog Food
You probably may have come across the brand name Purina as you purchase your animal food. The company is well known globally and is one of the most trusted pet food providers. They have been in the market for not less than 80 years and have built their reputation by researching the best ingredients and food formulas, thus maintain top-notch quality.
They provide a variety of dog meals that are age-specific. The Purina ONE SmartBlend Natural Puppy Dog Food is an excellent example of one of their products that is meant for puppies. The most significant advantage the product carries is its affordability. Its price carries weight as to why it is prevalent. The meal is also very healthy and delicious.
Its formula contains chicken, rice flour, corn gluten meal, whole grain corn, and chicken by-products. The chicken provides the meal with an adequate source of animal protein and fat. The rice flour is a good source of carbohydrates that is free from gluten. The meal also contains DHA, which you can find in the mother’s milk that helps with the development of the brain of the puppy. It also includes a blend of Vitamin E and A which strengthen the immunity of your pets. Not leaving out calcium and phosphorous that is responsible for the remarkable growth of the bones and joints.
- The meal is easy to digest for dogs.
- It is highly nutritious as it provides your puppies with the required nutrients for healthy growth.
- The product is very affordable.
- Its first ingredient is real chicken.
- The brand changed its formula in recent years, leaving some of its clients unsatisfied.
Purina ONE SmartBlend Natural Puppy Dog Food makes use of high-quality ingredients to deliver meals that dogs enjoy to eat. The food is an ideal diet that provides pets with the required nutrients for healthy growth and development. Your puppies are sure to receive the perfect amount of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and proteins that enable them to grow at the right speed.
Pedigree Complete Nutrition Puppy Dry Dog Food
Pedigree is a popular dog food brand that is mostly associated with show dogs and breeders due to its intensive marketing options. The brand produces both dry and wet dog foods as well as snacks and treats. They also provide meals that target various animal ailments.
They share a similarity to other brands in the market by producing meals by considering the age and size of the animals. The Pedigree Complete Nutrition Puppy Dry Dog Food as such is made specifically to help with the growth and development of puppies. It contains higher amounts of proteins to the calories, reducing the risk of your pet becoming obese.
The source of its nutrients include ground whole corn, chicken by-products, cornmeal (gluten), ground whole wheat, brewers rice, animal fat, vegetable oil, salt, fish oil, and dried yeast. Even though there is a considerable emphasis on the proteins, the nutrient content in the food is well balanced for the proper growth of the pet. It is rich in vitamin B, minerals, and amino acids. The meal also contains omega-three fatty acids that help with the proper growth of the heart, skin, and coat of the animal.
- The meal is a top favorite, as many dogs prefer it to other brands in the market.
- The meal consists of optimal levels of calcium and phosphorous that help with the development of strong bones and teeth.
- It is highly nutritious and has the right balance of nutrients that can help with the growth of the puppy.
- Its formula contains essential minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants.
- It contains DHA that is highly beneficial to puppies as it leads to the development of a healthy brain.
- Some users find the kibble too large for the puppies to eat with comfort.
When selecting a good meal for your puppies, you need to choose one that is appropriate for their development needs. The Pedigree Complete Nutrition Puppy Dry Dog Food meets all the requirements that your puppy should receive for healthy growth. It is well balanced with nutrients that focus on animal development without the risk of obesity caving in.
Royal Canin Size Health Nutrition Mini Puppy Dry Dog Food
Small dogs require more energy than big dogs. You can attribute it to the fact that they have short but highly intensive growth periods. If you are raising such a dog, you need to provide it with a meal that meets its energy requirements. And there is no better food such as the Royal Canin Size Health Nutrition Mini Puppy Dry Dog Food.
Royal Canin is a famous puppy dog food brand that has been in the market for more than 50 years. The company is based in Missouri and is responsible for developing highly nutritious and well-balanced dog food recipes with the help of their in-house team of scientists.
All the meals they provide is based on research and scientific evidence resulting in the trust they have garnered over the years. The Royal Canin Size Health Nutrition Mini Puppy Dry Dog Food consists of a balanced amount of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and essential antioxidants.
The meal is for use by small dog breeds that are between the age of 10 months and eight years old. The food is digestible to ensure all the nutrients are quickly absorbed during the intensive growth period. It contains the necessary nutrients that help with the nourishing of the skin and coat, reducing hair loss and keeping it glossy.
Some vitamins and antioxidants help to protect the animal’s immune system. Small dogs are more likely to get an infection during this phase of growth. The Royal Canin Size Health Nutrition Mini Puppy Dry Dog Food comes in select sizes designed for small animals with small jaws.
- The meal is highly nutritious as if focuses on the energy requirements of the dogs.
- It is quite popular among pet owners and dog breeders.
- It is specially made to support small animals during their growing phase.
- It contains essential minerals and vitamins that are responsible for an excellent immune system.
- The meal comes in bite sizes that are specific for small animals.
- It is easy to digest and absorb the required nutrients.
- The feed provides the animal with the appropriate nutrients for the proper maintenance of the skin and coat.
- The meal is not ideal for consumption by big dogs.
The Royal Canin Size Health Nutrition Mini Puppy Dry Dog Food is the most recommended meal for small dogs due to its substantial nutritional value. The meal is specially made to deliver the energy required by small animals to grow. Its nutrients also cover all the health concerns during this stage of growth and ensure that your pet becomes an adult without contracting any diseases.
Read next: Chicken Soup For The Soul Puppy Food Review
IAMS Proactive Health Puppy Dry Food
Iams Proactive Health Puppy Food is a nutritious diet suitable for puppies aged from one to twelve months. The menu contains specific ingredients that go well with the nutritional needs of puppies at this stage of growth. Each bag of the Iams puppy diet includes a balanced diet that helps to nurture the young dog’s health that includes muscles, eyes, brain, coat, and skin.
The first ingredient in the recipe is farm-raised chicken, which helps to promote the puppy’s strong muscles. The diet also includes wholesome grains and vegetables that are easily digestible. In the mixture are omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids that help to promote healthy skin and shiny coat.
The other notable ingredients include DHA, which helps to make the puppy grow more robust and smarter, beet pulp that helps with better digestion, vitamins, and minerals, among many others. The food does not contain any artificial preservatives, colours, or flavors. It is also free from wheat and soy.
- Contains protein-rich, farm-raised chicken as the main ingredient
- Chicken protein helps to promote stronger muscles
- Contains whole digestible grains
- Contains DHA that allows the puppies to become smarter
- Includes omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids that help to improve healthy skin and shinier coat
- Includes beet pulp that helps with the digestive system
- Contains a mixture of vitamins, and minerals alongside other ingredients that help to keep the puppy healthy
- Does not have artificial preservatives, colours, or flavors
- Does not contain wheat or soy
- The diet comprises wholesome grains that may not go well with puppies hat have allergies or food intolerance
Iams Dry Food for puppies is a great meal that meets all the nutrition needs of the growing puppy. It comes with a balance of all the right ingredients, including enough carbs to give the puppy enough energy.
However, even though the recipe does not contain wheat or soy, it has wholesome grains such as corn, which may cause some allergy reactions to the puppy. Besides the presence of the grains, an excellent diet comes with a high average rating of 4.5 stars from over 1,400 customers.
Hill’s Science Diet Dry Dog Food, Puppy
If you want your puppy to develop into a healthy adult dog, you should feed it with recipes that come with ingredients that emphasize optimal growth. One such recipe that you can count on is Hill’s Science Diet Puppy Dry Dog Food that comes in delicious easy to chew and digest small kibbles specially formulated for the puppies. The rich protein content in the recipe is from chicken and pork that help to build the puppy’s strong muscles.
In addition to the animal proteins, the formula contains plant-based proteins that also go to building a healthy system for the pup. The diet also includes a rich infusion of DHA, EPA, minerals, Vitamin C, and E, and wholesome grains.
The combination of the ingredients helps to promote brain development, stronger bones, and teeth, better eyesight, healthy skin and a shiny coat. The veterinarian recommended, USA product, does not contain any artificial preservatives, flavors, or colours. Besides the puppy, the food is also ideal for pregnant dogs.
- Contains real chicken and pork as the primary protein ingredients
- Helps to promote stronger muscles
- Contains DHA from fish oil that helps to promote brain development
- Includes minerals and vitamins that help to improve stronger bones and teeth
- Supports healthy skin and shiny coat
- Promotes better eyesight
- Veterinarian approved
- The food does not contain artificial preservatives, flavors, or colors
- USA made
- Extra Small chewable and easily digestible kibbles specially formulated for puppies
- Contains grains
Though the recipe does not give any grain-free option, it is one of the most nutritious diets for a growing puppy. It also includes the ingredients a puppy needs for its optimal growth and nutrition needs.
All the ingredients in the recipe are from natural sources, which make it is an excellent choice for pet owners, the kibbles come in the right sizes formulated for the dogs growing digestive system. With a rating of 4.8 stars, my verdict is hills science is the perfect choice for your growing puppy.
Rachael Ray Nutrish Bright Puppy Natural Premium Dog Dry Dog Food
Serving puppies with the highly nutritious Rachael Ray Nutrish Bright Puppy Dry Dog Food is the best step to take to ensure that they grow healthy and strong. The diet a balanced blend of ingredients all naturally sourced. The primary ingredient is farm-raised chicken that helps to promote the young puppy’s strong muscles. Other main ingredients include chicken meal, dried peas, brown rice, and soybean meal.
The meal also contains DHA sourced from fish oil that helps the small dogs with the brain and eye development. Other ingredients that include vitamins, minerals, linoleic acid, and ALA also help the puppies with the development of a more robust immune system, a healthy skin, and shiny coat, strong and healthy bones, and teeth and promote the healthy growth of other body systems.
The presence of fiber, and easy to digest fruits and vegetables in the diet also helps to aid in a healthier and better digestive system with more comfortable passing of stools for the young dogs. The calorie content of the menu is 390kcal/cup with a protein content of 28% and a fat content of 16%.
- Contains a high protein content with the main ingredient being farm-raised chicken
- Promotes strong muscle development
- Contains DHA and ALA for brain, eyesight, healthy immune system development
- Contains a blend of minerals, vitamins, and linoleic acid for the proper healthy growth of the puppy
- Includes fruits and vegetables that are easy to digest
- The formula does not contain artificial preservatives, colors, or flavors
- Contains corn and soybean
With an average rating of 4-5 stars, the Rachel Ray Nutrish Bright Puppy Premium Dry Dog Food is one of the best meals to feed your puppies within the market today. Made by the celebrity chef, Rachael ray, you can trust the meal to come with all the good and tasty flavors that make her dishes a favourite with many dogs. It is healthy, safe, and worth the cost.
Natural Balance L.I.D. Limited Ingredient Diets Dry Puppy Food
Natural Balance L.I.D. Limited Ingredient Diets Dry Puppy Food is a single source animal protein diet that ensures your puppy gets all the proper energy it needs for good growth. The simple formula recipe includes simple ingredients obtained from natural sources. The main ingredient in the diet is a duck, which is not common in many other puppy dog foods.
The premium protein ingredient is ideal for puppies that are sensitive to chicken. The recipe also contains limited carbohydrate sources with easily digestible potatoes being one of the energy sources. It also includes DHA sourced from fish oil that helps to promote the puppy’s healthy neural development.
Other ingredients include vitamins and minerals that go a long way in supporting the healthy growth of the puppy. The kibbles are small and specially formulated for the puppy’s small jaws. The diet does not contain any artificial preservatives, flavors, or colors. It is also grain-free. The calorie content in the recipe is 370kcal/cup with 22.5% protein and 11% fat.
- Limited one animal protein source
- Limited carbohydrate sources
- Includes duck as the primary protein ingredient that helps to promote stronger muscles
- Contains DHA sourced from fish oil for healthy neural development
- Contains easily digestible potatoes for energy
- Small kibbles specially formulated for small jaws
- Contains minerals and vitamins for better growth of the immune system and other body organs
- Dos not contain artificial preservatives, colors, or flavors
- All ingredients are from natural sources
- Helps to maintain healthy skin and luxurious coat
- Includes potatoes which may not go well with some puppies
- Some dogs may not tolerate the presence of wholesome grains such as rice in the diet
The highly nutritious limited ingredient formula for the puppies is one of the best in the market especially if you have puppies with allergic reactions. It is also suitable for fussy eaters as it tastes great and comes with a fantastic flavor. The diet has an average rating of 4.3 stars, which goes to show that you will love it just as much as many of the other pet owners. I would highly recommend the recipe.
Blue Buffalo Life Protection Formula Large Breed Puppy Dog Food
Your puppy can get all it needs from the Blue Buffalo Life Protection Formula for steady growth. The primary protein ingredient in the recipe is real meat from real chicken that helps the puppy to build and maintain healthy muscles. Other significant ingredients include brown rice, chicken meal, barley, and pea protein, among others.
The diet also contains DHA sourced from fish oil that helps to promote the dog’s neural system. It also contains ALA and other essential fatty acids that also help in brain and eye development of the puppy. Other ingredients infused in the menu include crucial minerals, vitamins, l-carniture, calcium, phosphorous and fiber that ensure the dog’s immune system, bones, and teeth stay strong.
The ingredients also help to maintain healthy skin and a luxurious coat. The meal contains 26% protein and 15% fat. The recipe is free from artificial preservatives, colors, and flavors. It is also grain-free. The kibbles are small, easily chewable, and digestible.
- Contains farm-raised chicken as the primary protein source
- Promotes stronger muscles
- Provides DHA and ALA for better brain and eyesight development
- Contains l-carniture, minerals and vitamins
- Includes antioxidants and omega 6 fatty acids
- Strengthens the immune system, bones and teeth
- Provides the puppy with healthy skin and luxurious coat
- Small kibbles specially formulated for the puppies
- Contains fiber for a healthy digestive system
- Does not include any artificial preservatives, flavors or colors
- Some puppies may react to the ingredients and develop sensitivity
Unlike some other dog products in the market, this diet does not contain any alarming ingredients that would cause your puppy any distress. It has a healthy mixture of ingredients that go a long way in ensuring that your active puppy grows strong and healthy.
Though some of the puppies may react to some of the ingredients, overall it is not a bad diet. It comes with a star rating of 4.1, which goes to show that a good number of pet owners love it.
Eukanuba Puppy Dry Dog Food
Eukanuba Puppy Dry Dog Food is a formula for large breed puppies with countless active lives. It is for the puppies that are at a stage of growth where they use a lot of energy with great determination to get what they want. The diet helps the puppies to unleash their extraordinary potential and keep them energized throughout their daily activities.
The complete balanced nutrition of Eukanuba puppy dry dog food helps to maintain a healthy body and mind. It contains high-quality animal proteins and other ingredients that ensure the puppy gets only the best for its nutritious needs. The main ingredient in the diet is chicken which helps to promote more energetic and healthier muscle growth.
It also contains DHA sourced from fish oil that supports the growth and development of a healthy brain. The meal also contains proper levels of fat and carbohydrates that ensure the puppy gets concentrated energy to help with its active lifestyle. Other ingredients in the mixture include essential vitamins, minerals, calcium and phosphorous that ensure the puppy develops sharp teeth and bones, healthy skin and coat and a more reliable immune system.
It includes natural fiber and prebiotics that help to aid in smoother digestion. The diet is free from artificial preservatives, colors, and colors.
- Chicken is the main protein ingredient
- Promotes stronger muscle growth
- Contains DHA for better brain development
- Infused with minerals, vitamins, antioxidants, prebiotics, fiber, calcium and phosphorous among other ingredients
- Promotes smoother digestions
- Supports a healthier and stronger immune system
- Promotes a more robust and more vigorous coat and skin
- Supports stronger bones and teeth
- Contains no artificial preservatives, colors or flavors
- Has a balanced mixture of carbs and fats for energy
- Contains whole grains that may cause some allergic reactions to the puppies
Eukanuba is a famous brand that provides pet owners with some of the most nutritious diets for growing dogs. The recipe for large breed puppies has all the right ingredients to ensure that your active puppy keeps up with its lifestyle with enough energy. The diet comes with a star rating of 4.5, which goes to show that it is a favourite among many of the pet owners. I would highly recommend it for your growing puppy.
Canidae Pure Puppy Recipe Limited Ingredient Grain-Free Premium Dry Dog Food
Canidae Pure Puppy Recipe is a grain-free diet with limited ingredients crafted from natural foods. The well-balanced diet provides your active puppy with all the ingredients it needs to meet its nutritious needs and lifestyle the main protein ingredient in this recipe is chicken paired with peas, potatoes, lentils and menhaden fish among others. The high chicken protein helps to support the puppy’s lean, strong muscles.
The diet also contains probiotics that promote easy digestion. Other properties in the meal include vitamins, minerals and antioxidants that support a healthy immune system, strong bones and teeth and a healthy coat and skin. The grain-free diet is free from wheat, soy, and wheat. The recipe does not contain artificial colors, flavors, or preservatives.
- Limited ingredient diet
- Contains chicken as the primary protein ingredient for strong lean muscles
- Infused with vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants that help to support a healthy immune system and strong bones and teeth
- Includes probiotics for healthy skin and shiny coat
- Grain-free with no wheat, soy, or wheat
- The food does not contain artificial additives
- Chicken does not go too well with some of the puppies
Canidae Pure Puppy Recipe Limited Ingredient Grain-Free Premium Dry Dog Food is an excellent diet for puppies with food sensitivity. It comes with limited ingredients, and it is grain-free. It also tastes great, making it ideal for fussy puppies.
The diet comes with a star rating of 4.3, which means it is a good meal for the pets. It also provides value for money, which is another reason I would highly recommend it for your growing puppy.
Diamond Naturals Large Breed Puppy Real Lamb Premium Dry Dog Food
Diamond Naturals Premium Dry Dog Food meets all the nutritional needs of the large breed puppy. It contains the ideal ingredients that help to support the growing puppy’s development. The main ingredient in the recipe is real lamb, which supports the young dogs lean muscle development.
The recipe also contains a formula enhanced with superfoods and probiotics that help to support a healthy digestive system. Infused in the formula is DHA, sourced from fish oil that helps with brain and vision development. Other essential ingredients include antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, l-carniture, glucosamine, chondroitin, veggies, and fruits.
All these ingredients help to promote a healthy immune system, stronger bones and teeth, healthy skin and coat. The calorie content of the diet is 342kcal/cup. The recipe is free from artificial preservatives, flavors, and colors. It is grain-free and does not contain wheat, soy, or corn.
- Contains high-protein chicken as the main ingredient that helps to promote the growth of stronger leaner muscles
- Infused with vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, probiotics fruits and vegetables
- Includes l-carniture, glucosamine, and chondroitin
- Promotes a robust immune system, joints and bones, healthy skin, shinier coat
- Does not contain any artificial additives
- Some dogs did not like the taste
Pet owners have very negative things to say about this recipe because it comes with all the goodness and energy you would want for your growing puppy. It is for this reason that the formula gets a star rating of 4.4. It is a worthy buy, and I would recommend you to go for it.
As dogs grow, they can seem always to be hungry. You can, therefore, easily make a mistake and overfeed them. When you are feeding your puppies, you need to be conscious of the health impacts that can arise with overfeeding such as obesity and rapid growth spurts.
You should, therefore, be careful to provide your puppies with just the required amount of food depending on their size, weight, and breed. You can check if the food packaging has any labels indicating the food portions. If you are still uncertain, you can consult a vet for more information.